36 Search results

For the term "add user".

Could not chdir to home directory home Permission denied

This one has caught me a couple times and I keep forgetting how simple it is to solve. When you create a new user and then login as the new user, you get this message: Could not chdir to home directory /home/user: Permission denied -bash: /home/user .bash_profile: Permission denied And you find that you are not (and not able to...

Eliminate error “127.0.0.1 Directory index forbidden by Options directive” in log files (and other needless noise)

Ubuntu Apache Error : client 127.0.0.1 Directory index forbidden by Options directive This error and many others clog your log files with noise which can be easily eliminated without compromising security. The reason I get this error is because I have set .htaccess in the server root directory to Options -Index for security reasons. I don’t want anyone browsing /var/www...

Create User on Debian and Ubuntu

Users and Groups Users are located in /etc/passwd Groups are located in /etc/group The administrative ROOT account is disabled by default in Ubuntu . If you wish to enable the root account, simply give it a password by typing sudo passwd To disable the root account sudo passwd -l root The initial user created by the Ubuntu installer is a...

Install Truecrypt

Note: When installing Truecrypt on a new linux system, the most common failure (install simply stops without an error message) is due to the permissions of the user. Make sure the user has been added to sudoers group and reboot (or logout and login again), or you will get the massage “user not in sudoers group”. Download Truecrypt Download signature...

ddclient for DynDNS Setup on Debian 7

# Configuration file for ddclient # # /etc/ddclient.conf ## ddclient configuration file daemon=600 # check every 600 seconds syslog=yes ## Default options protocol=dyndns2 ## Detect IP with our CheckIP server use=web, web=checkip.dyndns.com, web-skip=’IP Address’ server=members.dyndns.org # log update msgs to syslog mail-failure=user@gmail.com # Mail failed updates to user pid=/var/run/ddclient.pid # record PID in file. ## DynDNS username and password here...

How To Setup Munin on Ubuntu 12.04 LTS

Assumption: You will access munin using the server IP adress http://123.123.123.123/munin (there are several ways to setup and access munin, but in a VirtualHost environment it may not be desirable to setup/access via a VirtualHost.) sudo apt-get install munin munin-node sudo vi /etc/munin/apache.conf Allow from localhost 127.0.0.0/8 ::1 # Replace with this Allow from all # add this line just...

BASH Shell Notes

The BASH Environment BASH executes in this order /etc/environment /etc/profile /etc/bash.bashrc /home/user/.profile /home/user/.bashrc Interactive vs Non-interactive Shell interactive execution order: /etc/profile then the first readable of ~/.bash_profile, ~/.bash_login, and ~/.profile .profile – is read when an interactive login shell is started. /etc/profile ~/.bash_profile ~/.bash_login ~/.profile non-interactive execution order: /etc/bash.bashrc then ~/.bashrc ~/.bashrc – is read when a non-login interactive shell...

Apache Permissions on ServerRoot Directories

Apache Permissions on ServerRoot Directories In typical operation, Apache is started by the root user, and it switches to the user defined by the User directive to serve hits. As is the case with any command that root executes, you must take care that it is protected from modification by non-root users. Not only must the files themselves be writable...

How To Set Up Password Authentication in Apache2

sudo apt-get install apache2-utils ( FIRST USER only ( -c ) option to create file, or you will wipe all your existing logins !!! ) sudo htpasswd -c /etc/apache2/.htpasswd username1only sudo htpasswd /etc/apache2/.htpasswd username2etc Conventional setup sudo vi /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf ( In which case you must specify the Directory to be protected ) <Directory “/var/www/www.example.com/administrator”> AuthType Basic AuthName “Restricted Content” AuthUserFile...

Drupal Install Modules and Themes using SSH

If you don’t want to install Drush and don’t want to use FTP (I like a secure server) Install Drupal modules via SSH on Ubuntu Server (12.04 LTS) Assumptions: You have/are… Unix command line proficient Rsync capable Apache2/Ubuntu directories (other flavors of Linux may vary) Download module or theme to desktop Unzip file to an empty directory Upload module or...

How to Customize Apache Log Format for Fail2ban

Customize apache2 other_vhosts_access.log format so fail2ban can use it. sudo vi /etc/apache2/apache2.conf On line 255 insert LogFormat “%t %v:%p %h %l %u \”%r\” %>s %O \”%{Referer}i\” \”%{User-Agent}i\”” fail2ban Comment out the following line #LogFormat “%v:%p %h %l %u %t \”%r\” %>s %O \”%{Referer}i\” \”%{User-Agent}i\”” vhost_combined sudo vi /etc/apache2/conf.d/other-vhosts-access-log change the end of the line (or duplicate and comment out) as...

Padre Still Crashes on Debian Linux

The linked post was written in 2012 explaining what I think most users of Padre encounter, and therefore I won’t repeat anything already nicely documented there except to quote “And please do not feed me a junk line about it works on my Linux distribution, I do not care. Pretend I am a normal end user for a moment. If...

Set BASH as Default Shell

Enter at the prompt $ bash If command not found error, install BASH # pkg_add -r -v bash Now find where BASH is installed $ which bash You should see (Ubuntu) /bin/bash Change shell to BASH $ chsh -s /bin/bash username username is your User Name You should see: Password: Provide your login password You’ll need to logout (exit) and...

Debian Environment Variables

And then I lived happily ever after – Fixed – BASH scripts executed from a user as sudo, resulted in the root ownership. In other words, a backup script executed by user became the property of root

Cubox-i2 Config Setup

Download Gunnar Wolf’s Debian Wheezy https://people.debian.org/~gwolf/ Also working: Ubuntu sudo dd if=ubuntu-oneiric-freescale.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 Android 4.3 sudo dd if=beta-11-dec-2013-i2.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 Not working: Debian Jesse sudo dd if=debian-jessi-4-july-2014.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 Copy to SDmicro sudo dd if=cubox.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 password for root is cubox-i #vi /etc/apt/sources.list #deb http://download.solid-run.com/pub/solidrun/cubox/repo/debian cubox main #deb-src http://download.solid-run.com/pub/solidrun/cubox/repo/debian cubox main vi /etc/network/interfaces auto lo iface lo inet loopback allow-hotplug eth0 iface...