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For the term "bash".

Set BASH as Default Shell

Enter at the prompt $ bash If command not found error, install BASH # pkg_add -r -v bash Now find where BASH is installed $ which bash You should see (Ubuntu) /bin/bash Change shell to BASH $ chsh -s /bin/bash username username is your User Name You should see: Password: Provide your login password You’ll need to logout (exit) and...

BASH Shell Notes

The BASH Environment BASH executes in this order /etc/environment /etc/profile /etc/bash.bashrc /home/user/.profile /home/user/.bashrc Interactive vs Non-interactive Shell interactive execution order: /etc/profile then the first readable of ~/.bash_profile, ~/.bash_login, and ~/.profile .profile – is read when an interactive login shell is started. /etc/profile ~/.bash_profile ~/.bash_login ~/.profile non-interactive execution order: /etc/bash.bashrc then ~/.bashrc ~/.bashrc – is read when a non-login interactive shell...

Find and Kill All Processes One Liner

Brilliant – where you need it – like when you accidentally try to open 8000 html files at once with your browser. sudo kill $(ps aux | grep ‘iceweasel’ | awk ‘{print $2}’) credit for Find and Kill All Processes One Liner – bash using grep and awk

Some Bash Scripts to Manage Remote Server

Script to Update and Upgrade #! /bin/bash chmod 700 /usr/bin/apt-get chmod 700 /usr/bin/aptitude chmod 700 /usr/bin/dpkg swapoff -a chown username:username /home/username/* chmod 700 /home/username/* apt-get update && apt-get upgrade –show-upgraded -y Script to End session and Harden some critical files #! /bin/bash swapon -a chmod 000 /usr/bin/apt-get chmod 000 /usr/bin/aptitude chmod 000 /usr/bin/dpkg find /home/username/ -size 0 -exec rm '{}'...

Bash PS1 Manual Prompt Variables

PS1=’\[$(tput bold)$(tput setab 1)$(tput setaf 2)\]\t \u@\h \w \[$(tput sgr0)\] ‘ https://linuxconfig.org/bash-prompt-basics \a : an ASCII bell character (07) \d : the date in “Weekday Month Date” format (e.g., “Tue May 26”) \D{format} : the format is passed to strftime(3) and the result is inserted into the prompt string; an empty format results in a locale-specific time representation. The braces...

Block All Traffic to Your New Remote Server

I block all traffic to a new server while I setup users and environment using Netfilter AKA iptables. Nothing else gets in or out of the box but me. This requires 2 scripts actually. One to close the machine to all other IPs but mine, and one to “unblock”. You need to unblock while installing other software, re. LAMP, when...

Joomla Permissions Settings

Permissions Settings are the central problem with all CMS. Here is how I set permissions while installing extensions in Joomla. Before and after installing an extension, I use these BASH scripts to change permissions so that nothing hangs. (it almost always does without using these) Optional security tip: If it is possible in your environment, stopping Apache during the install...

Debian Environment Variables

And then I lived happily ever after – Fixed – BASH scripts executed from a user as sudo, resulted in the root ownership. In other words, a backup script executed by user became the property of root

-bash: sudo: command not found

When you see this error message -bash: sudo: command not found su apt-get install sudo adduser username sudo apt-get install locales locale-gen en_US.UTF-8

Delete Bash History File Linux

Delete the .bash_history file rm -rf ~/.bash_history Clear the current history stored in RAM history -c

Create User on Debian and Ubuntu

Users and Groups Users are located in /etc/passwd Groups are located in /etc/group The administrative ROOT account is disabled by default in Ubuntu . If you wish to enable the root account, simply give it a password by typing sudo passwd To disable the root account sudo passwd -l root The initial user created by the Ubuntu installer is a...

Checklist when rc.local does not run on boot on Debian 7 Wheezy

Checklist when rc.local does not run on boot on Debian 7 Wheezy Make sure file is located /etc/rc.local Permissions root:root 755 The shebang is in place in the first line #!/bin/sh -e You bash script has a . and full path ./home/me/myscript.sh The last line must be exit 0

After Installing Debian 7 Desktop

Checklist of things to do after installing Debian Gnome The first problem you have with a brand new linux (Debian/Ubuntu) install is the user is not setup in sudoers. So first thing: login as root su sudo adduser username sudo sudo vi /etc/sudoers give permissions to your new user – below root username ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL alternately – unsecure username ALL=(ALL)...

Could not chdir to home directory home Permission denied

This one has caught me a couple times and I keep forgetting how simple it is to solve. When you create a new user and then login as the new user, you get this message: Could not chdir to home directory /home/user: Permission denied -bash: /home/user .bash_profile: Permission denied And you find that you are not (and not able to...

Netfilter (iptables) Tips & Tricks

Netfilter (aka iptables) is how you stop any intrusions. As an example, PSAD can recognize attack patterns, but it is Netfilter that is then used to stop any communcations from getting a response. In otherwords, Netfilter can be told to ignore incoming requests; essentially making the server unreachable.