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For the term "change user".

Could not chdir to home directory home Permission denied

This one has caught me a couple times and I keep forgetting how simple it is to solve. When you create a new user and then login as the new user, you get this message: Could not chdir to home directory /home/user: Permission denied -bash: /home/user .bash_profile: Permission denied And you find that you are not (and not able to...

How To Setup Munin on Ubuntu 12.04 LTS

Assumption: You will access munin using the server IP adress http://123.123.123.123/munin (there are several ways to setup and access munin, but in a VirtualHost environment it may not be desirable to setup/access via a VirtualHost.) sudo apt-get install munin munin-node sudo vi /etc/munin/apache.conf Allow from localhost 127.0.0.0/8 ::1 # Replace with this Allow from all # add this line just...

Eliminate error “127.0.0.1 Directory index forbidden by Options directive” in log files (and other needless noise)

Ubuntu Apache Error : client 127.0.0.1 Directory index forbidden by Options directive This error and many others clog your log files with noise which can be easily eliminated without compromising security. The reason I get this error is because I have set .htaccess in the server root directory to Options -Index for security reasons. I don’t want anyone browsing /var/www...

After Installing Debian 7 Desktop

Checklist of things to do after installing Debian Gnome The first problem you have with a brand new linux (Debian/Ubuntu) install is the user is not setup in sudoers. So first thing: login as root su sudo adduser username sudo sudo vi /etc/sudoers give permissions to your new user – below root username ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL alternately – unsecure username ALL=(ALL)...

Create User on Debian and Ubuntu

Users and Groups Users are located in /etc/passwd Groups are located in /etc/group The administrative ROOT account is disabled by default in Ubuntu . If you wish to enable the root account, simply give it a password by typing sudo passwd To disable the root account sudo passwd -l root The initial user created by the Ubuntu installer is a...

How To Install Bing Sitemap on Apache

if you redirect a page after it was 200 previously, it will still show up in the Sitemap for some time. until the configured time decay has passed which is configurable using the VisitTimeoutSec setting. Configuring the Makefiles: 1. Change to the root directory (ie, parent of this directory containing the readme.txt), 2. Ensure ‘configure’ has executable permissions (ie, ‘chmod...

How to Customize Apache Log Format for Fail2ban

Customize apache2 other_vhosts_access.log format so fail2ban can use it. sudo vi /etc/apache2/apache2.conf On line 255 insert LogFormat “%t %v:%p %h %l %u \”%r\” %>s %O \”%{Referer}i\” \”%{User-Agent}i\”” fail2ban Comment out the following line #LogFormat “%v:%p %h %l %u %t \”%r\” %>s %O \”%{Referer}i\” \”%{User-Agent}i\”” vhost_combined sudo vi /etc/apache2/conf.d/other-vhosts-access-log change the end of the line (or duplicate and comment out) as...

Drupal Install Modules and Themes using SSH

If you don’t want to install Drush and don’t want to use FTP (I like a secure server) Install Drupal modules via SSH on Ubuntu Server (12.04 LTS) Assumptions: You have/are… Unix command line proficient Rsync capable Apache2/Ubuntu directories (other flavors of Linux may vary) Download module or theme to desktop Unzip file to an empty directory Upload module or...

Install Truecrypt

Note: When installing Truecrypt on a new linux system, the most common failure (install simply stops without an error message) is due to the permissions of the user. Make sure the user has been added to sudoers group and reboot (or logout and login again), or you will get the massage “user not in sudoers group”. Download Truecrypt Download signature...

Set BASH as Default Shell

Enter at the prompt $ bash If command not found error, install BASH # pkg_add -r -v bash Now find where BASH is installed $ which bash You should see (Ubuntu) /bin/bash Change shell to BASH $ chsh -s /bin/bash username username is your User Name You should see: Password: Provide your login password You’ll need to logout (exit) and...

ddclient for DynDNS Setup on Debian 7

# Configuration file for ddclient # # /etc/ddclient.conf ## ddclient configuration file daemon=600 # check every 600 seconds syslog=yes ## Default options protocol=dyndns2 ## Detect IP with our CheckIP server use=web, web=checkip.dyndns.com, web-skip=’IP Address’ server=members.dyndns.org # log update msgs to syslog mail-failure=user@gmail.com # Mail failed updates to user pid=/var/run/ddclient.pid # record PID in file. ## DynDNS username and password here...

Cubox-i2 Config Setup

Download Gunnar Wolf’s Debian Wheezy https://people.debian.org/~gwolf/ Also working: Ubuntu sudo dd if=ubuntu-oneiric-freescale.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 Android 4.3 sudo dd if=beta-11-dec-2013-i2.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 Not working: Debian Jesse sudo dd if=debian-jessi-4-july-2014.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 Copy to SDmicro sudo dd if=cubox.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 password for root is cubox-i #vi /etc/apt/sources.list #deb http://download.solid-run.com/pub/solidrun/cubox/repo/debian cubox main #deb-src http://download.solid-run.com/pub/solidrun/cubox/repo/debian cubox main vi /etc/network/interfaces auto lo iface lo inet loopback allow-hotplug eth0 iface...

Setup a LAMP Server on Debian or Ubuntu

This setup is for Virtual Host server – not a dedicated server with a single domain SSH to your server ssh root@IP Update Debian/Ubuntu apt-get update && apt-get upgrade –show-upgraded -y Create User How To Create a User in Linux Setup SSH for Remote Access With GPG Keys – No Password How To Setup SSH for Remote Access IMPORANT –...

BASH Shell Notes

The BASH Environment BASH executes in this order /etc/environment /etc/profile /etc/bash.bashrc /home/user/.profile /home/user/.bashrc Interactive vs Non-interactive Shell interactive execution order: /etc/profile then the first readable of ~/.bash_profile, ~/.bash_login, and ~/.profile .profile – is read when an interactive login shell is started. /etc/profile ~/.bash_profile ~/.bash_login ~/.profile non-interactive execution order: /etc/bash.bashrc then ~/.bashrc ~/.bashrc – is read when a non-login interactive shell...

Harden WordPress Permissions

Harden WordPress chown [username]:www-data find /var/www/html/DOMAIN -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \; find /var/www/html/DOMAIN -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \; chmod 440 /var/www/html/DOMAIN/*.php chmod 450 -R /var/www/html/DOMAIN/wp-admin chmod 450 -R /var/www/html/DOMAIN/wp-includes chmod 440 /var/www/html/DOMAIN/.htaccess chmod 766 /var/www/html/DOMAIN/sitemap.* chmod 770 -R /var/www/html/DOMAIN/wp-content/uploads chmod 770 -R /var/www/html/DOMAIN/wp-content/upgrade chmod 750 -R /var/www/html/DOMAIN/wp-content/plugins (You could put all that in a script for...