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For the term "set bash".

Set BASH as Default Shell

Enter at the prompt $ bash If command not found error, install BASH # pkg_add -r -v bash Now find where BASH is installed $ which bash You should see (Ubuntu) /bin/bash Change shell to BASH $ chsh -s /bin/bash username username is your User Name You should see: Password: Provide your login password You’ll need to logout (exit) and...

BASH Shell Notes

The BASH Environment BASH executes in this order /etc/environment /etc/profile /etc/bash.bashrc /home/user/.profile /home/user/.bashrc Interactive vs Non-interactive Shell interactive execution order: /etc/profile then the first readable of ~/.bash_profile, ~/.bash_login, and ~/.profile .profile – is read when an interactive login shell is started. /etc/profile ~/.bash_profile ~/.bash_login ~/.profile non-interactive execution order: /etc/bash.bashrc then ~/.bashrc ~/.bashrc – is read when a non-login interactive shell...

Bash PS1 Manual Prompt Variables

PS1=’\[$(tput bold)$(tput setab 1)$(tput setaf 2)\]\t \u@\h \w \[$(tput sgr0)\] ‘ https://linuxconfig.org/bash-prompt-basics \a : an ASCII bell character (07) \d : the date in “Weekday Month Date” format (e.g., “Tue May 26”) \D{format} : the format is passed to strftime(3) and the result is inserted into the prompt string; an empty format results in a locale-specific time representation. The braces...

Block All Traffic to Your New Remote Server

I block all traffic to a new server while I setup users and environment using Netfilter AKA iptables. Nothing else gets in or out of the box but me. This requires 2 scripts actually. One to close the machine to all other IPs but mine, and one to “unblock”. You need to unblock while installing other software, re. LAMP, when...

Tunnel MySQL Over SSH

Assuming On a “remote.com” server that we will connect to from our LocalMachine 1) MySQL database named “database” 2) MySQL database is running on remote server “remote.com” 3) MySQL is running and listening on (standard) localhost:port “127.0.0.1:3306” 4) MySQL username “mysql_user_name” 5) MySQL password “mysql_password” 6) SSH must be listening on port 9999 7) SSH AllowUsers “ssh_user_name” 8) SSH password...

Systemd ssh Reverse Tunnel on Debian 9 Stretch

I have used rc.local for years to setup an ssh reverse tunnel on boot under Debian up until Stretch. Now like many others I imagine, I’ve had to convert to systemd. I read everything I could about the choice for deprecating rc.local for systemd. I can say that systemd may be powerful, but systemd’s complexity entails a huge learning-curve for...

Joomla Permissions Settings

Permissions Settings are the central problem with all CMS. Here is how I set permissions while installing extensions in Joomla. Before and after installing an extension, I use these BASH scripts to change permissions so that nothing hangs. (it almost always does without using these) Optional security tip: If it is possible in your environment, stopping Apache during the install...

Create User on Debian

Users and Groups Users are located in /etc/passwd Groups are located in /etc/group The administrative ROOT account is disabled by default in Ubuntu . If you wish to enable the root account, simply give it a password by typing sudo passwd To disable the root account sudo passwd -l root The initial user created by the Ubuntu installer is a...

After Installing Debian 7 Desktop

Checklist of things to do after installing Debian Gnome The first problem you have with a brand new linux (Debian/Ubuntu) install is the user is not setup in sudoers. So first thing: login as root su sudo adduser username sudo sudo vi /etc/sudoers give permissions to your new user – below root username ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL alternately – unsecure username ALL=(ALL)...

Netfilter (iptables) Tips & Tricks

Netfilter (aka iptables) is how you stop any intrusions. As an example, PSAD can recognize attack patterns, but it is Netfilter that is then used to stop any communcations from getting a response. In otherwords, Netfilter can be told to ignore incoming requests; essentially making the server unreachable.

Fail2ban Mysql Database to Manage Persistent Bans

Step 1 Create Database and Tables in MySQL Add a “source” field for the server name if you want to use a remote database setup (and add it to the UNIQUE KEY). The UNIQUE KEY prevents duplicates of course. But this means you can refresh the perl script without handling duplicates there which would complicate things considerably. CREATE TABLE iptable...

Cubox-i2 Config Setup

Download Gunnar Wolf’s Debian Wheezy https://people.debian.org/~gwolf/ Also working: Ubuntu sudo dd if=ubuntu-oneiric-freescale.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 Android 4.3 sudo dd if=beta-11-dec-2013-i2.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 Not working: Debian Jesse sudo dd if=debian-jessi-4-july-2014.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 Copy to SDmicro sudo dd if=cubox.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 password for root is cubox-i #vi /etc/apt/sources.list #deb http://download.solid-run.com/pub/solidrun/cubox/repo/debian cubox main #deb-src http://download.solid-run.com/pub/solidrun/cubox/repo/debian cubox main vi /etc/network/interfaces auto lo iface lo inet loopback allow-hotplug eth0 iface...

Setup LAMP Server Debian 9 Apache 2.4 MarianDB Php 7

Prerequisite is a fresh remote server with Debian 9 Stretch installed and booted From remote terminal Block all traffic iptable -F iptables -P INPUT DROP iptables -P OUTPUT DROP iptables -P FORWARD DROP Create a User sudo useradd -d /home/username -m username Set the User’s Password sudo passwd username Add the User to the Admin Group sudo adduser username adm...

How To Block Traffic by Country using IPtables

http://www.linuxstall.com/block-country-iptables/ http://www.ipdeny.com/ipblocks/ http://www.ipdeny.com/ipblocks/data/countries/ #!/bin/bash # country codes ISO="cn it kr br ru tw af sa iq sy tr ua in jp id at ro pl bg vn hk ve th mx co ar ir cz ph eg pk" # set path IPT=/sbin/iptables WGET=/usr/bin/wget EGREP=/bin/egrep $IPT-save -c > /home/iptables/iptables_bak_$(/bin/date +\%Y\%m\%d\%H\%M\%S).txt SPAMLIST="countrydrop" ZONEROOT="/root/iptables" DLROOT="http://www.ipdeny.com/ipblocks/data/countries" cleanOldRules(){ $IPT -F $IPT -X $IPT -t nat...

GREP SED AWK VI and FIND Usage Notes for Webmasters

When it comes to manipulating files, you can do almost anything with GREP SED AWK VI and FIND (and I’m a novice). My notes (taken from far more capable individuals online than I. Thank you all for the education.) File manipulation using AWK, GREP, SED, FIND, VI AWK AWK to extract IPs from logs Lists of IPs from log file...