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For the term "change user".

BASH Shell Notes

The BASH Environment BASH executes in this order /etc/environment /etc/profile /etc/bash.bashrc /home/user/.profile /home/user/.bashrc Interactive vs Non-interactive Shell interactive execution order: /etc/profile then the first readable of ~/.bash_profile, ~/.bash_login, and ~/.profile .profile – is read when an interactive login shell is started. /etc/profile ~/.bash_profile ~/.bash_login ~/.profile non-interactive execution order: /etc/bash.bashrc then ~/.bashrc ~/.bashrc – is read when a non-login interactive shell...

Harden WordPress Permissions

Harden WordPress chown [username]:www-data find /var/www/html/DOMAIN -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \; find /var/www/html/DOMAIN -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \; chmod 440 /var/www/html/DOMAIN/*.php chmod 450 -R /var/www/html/DOMAIN/wp-admin chmod 450 -R /var/www/html/DOMAIN/wp-includes chmod 440 /var/www/html/DOMAIN/.htaccess chmod 766 /var/www/html/DOMAIN/sitemap.* chmod 770 -R /var/www/html/DOMAIN/wp-content/uploads chmod 770 -R /var/www/html/DOMAIN/wp-content/upgrade chmod 750 -R /var/www/html/DOMAIN/wp-content/plugins (You could put all that in a script for...

Change Default Editor at System Level

In a terminal type sudo apt-get install vim sudo update-alternatives –config editor Follow the instructions to choose vim.basic – your display will vary Debian Ubuntu Change Default Editor Nano VI Gedit at System Level sudo vi /etc/vim/vimrc uncomment line 20 – syntax on logout & login

SEO Sitemap

What is a sitemap? A sitemap is a exactly what it says, a map of pages you want the search engines (and people) to know about. Generally they are for search engines to quickly read and index your site. A sitemap is more important for a new website or for a site with poorly designed navigation. But it is widely...

How To Localize WordPress for German

Copy wordpress-de files (you can copy over the exiting (English) WP version) sudo cp -Rf /wordpress-de/* /var/www/www.furbeispeil.de sudo vi wp-config.php Here is the section: /** * WordPress Localized Language, defaults to English. * * Change this to localize WordPress. A corresponding MO file for the chosen * language must be installed to wp-content/languages. For example, install * de_DE.mo to wp-content/languages...

Magento 1.7 Multiple Sites Install on Ubuntu Linux

How To Install Multiple Stores in Magento 1.7 These are my notes. I do not profess to be a professional Magento developer. This guide is for a pure SSH install using Rsync. Now given that you are proficient with SSH and command line Linux, the install of Magento is not difficult if you also can: Create a MySQL database, user...

Apache Permissions on ServerRoot Directories

Apache Permissions on ServerRoot Directories In typical operation, Apache is started by the root user, and it switches to the user defined by the User directive to serve hits. As is the case with any command that root executes, you must take care that it is protected from modification by non-root users. Not only must the files themselves be writable...

How To Set Up Password Authentication in Apache2

sudo apt-get install apache2-utils ( FIRST USER only ( -c ) option to create file, or you will wipe all your existing logins !!! ) sudo htpasswd -c /etc/apache2/.htpasswd username1only sudo htpasswd /etc/apache2/.htpasswd username2etc Conventional setup sudo vi /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf ( In which case you must specify the Directory to be protected ) <Directory “/var/www/www.example.com/administrator”> AuthType Basic AuthName “Restricted Content” AuthUserFile...

Padre Still Crashes on Debian Linux

The linked post was written in 2012 explaining what I think most users of Padre encounter, and therefore I won’t repeat anything already nicely documented there except to quote “And please do not feed me a junk line about it works on my Linux distribution, I do not care. Pretend I am a normal end user for a moment. If...

Fail2ban Mysql Database to Manage Persistent Bans

Step 1 Create Database and Tables in MySQL Add a “source” field for the server name if you want to use a remote database setup (and add it to the UNIQUE KEY). The UNIQUE KEY prevents duplicates of course. But this means you can refresh the perl script without handling duplicates there which would complicate things considerably. CREATE TABLE iptable...

Setup SSL on Debian Apache Virtualhost

Assuming: Debian 7 Wheezy You have more than one website on your server (therefore you are using Virtualhost files for each website) You are on Apache2.2 https://www.debian-administration.org/article/349/Setting_up_an_SSL_server_with_Apache2 You should do this first : Generate SSL key, crt, csr files Apache SSL Setup (what they say and what I did not do): To enable SSL, type (as user root): sudo a2ensite...

Debian Environment Variables

And then I lived happily ever after – Fixed – BASH scripts executed from a user as sudo, resulted in the root ownership. In other words, a backup script executed by user became the property of root

Install Joomla 2.5 on Ubuntu 12.04 LTS

Assuming Joomla is uploaded to your remote server and unzipped in /home/username/joomla Create your website directory sudo mkdir /var/www/www.example.com Copy Joomla to the website directory sudo cp -Rf /home/username/joomla/* /var/www/www.example.com I use scripts to set Joomla permission at this point. If you run into trouble, it will be because permissions are not set correctly, so I do this by default....

what is s.ytimg.com

YouTubeIMaGe – s.ytimg.com means YouTube image https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/questions/953550 This is a tracker that you can change as follows https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/enable-and-disable-cookies-website-preferences If you place YouTube videos on you website, you may not want to place them on your Home Page for speed considerations, as this tracker tends to be the slowest component. Check that here http://tools.pingdom.com/fpt/ Pingdom website Speed Test Personally hate Adobe...